Историята

Хуан Яг


Хуан Ягуе, син на лекар, е роден в Испания през 1891 г. Той постъпва в Пехотната академия в Толедо, където се запознава с Франсиско Франко. Двамата мъже бяха поръчани едновременно и служеха заедно в Африка.

През 1932 г. Yagüe е повишен в чин подполковник от пехотен батальон в Испания. Две години по-късно той се присъединява към Франко в потушаването на лявото въстание в Астурия. По това време той се свързва много тясно с Falange Española.

Народният фронт дойде на власт през февруари 1936 г. Новото правителство незабавно разстрои консерваторите, освобождавайки всички леви политически затворници. Правителството въведе и аграрни реформи, които наказваха поземлената аристокрация. Други мерки включват прехвърляне на десни военни лидери като Франсиско Франко на постове извън Испания, обявяване извън закона на Испанската фаланга и предоставяне на Каталуния политическа и административна автономия.

В резултат на тези мерки богатите изнесоха огромни суми капитал от страната. Това създава икономическа криза и стойността на песетата намалява, което уврежда търговията и туризма. С повишаването на цените работниците поискаха по -високи заплати. Това доведе до поредица от стачки в Испания.

На 10 май 1936 г. консерваторът Никето Алкала Замора беше свален от поста президент и заменен от левия Мануел Азаня. Скоро след това офицерите от испанската армия, включително Yagüe, Emilio Mola, Francisco Franco, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano и José Sanjurjo, започнаха заговор за сваляне на правителството на Народния фронт. Това доведе до избухването на Испанската гражданска война на 17 юли 1936 г.

Ягуе и войските му завзеха Мерида. На 14 август 1936 г. Ягуе и 3 000 войници атакуват Бадахос. Горчивите улични битки се проведоха, когато националистическата армия навлезе в града. Загубите са тежки и от двете страни и когато националистите поемат контрола над Бадахос, се твърди, че са избили около 1800 души. Той също така насърчава войските си да изнасилват привърженици на правителството на Народния фронт. В резултат Yagüe става известен като "Касапинът от Бадахос".

След това Ягю насочва силите си към Мадрид, превземайки Трухильо, Навалморал де ла Мата и Талавера. През ноември 1936 г. той получава командването на африканските сили, но не успява да превземе столицата. Сега той участва в офанзивата на Арагон и пое контрола над Белчите, Каспе и Лерида. Той също играе водеща роля в победата при река Ебро.

След поражението на Републиканската армия генерал Франсиско Франко назначи Ягюе за министър на въздуха. Хуан Ягуе умира на 29 октомври 1952 г.


Ранен живот [редактиране | редактиране на източника]

Син на лекар, той се записва на млади години в Пехотната академия в Толедо, където Франсиско Франко е съученик -кадет. Двамата мъже получават поръчките си едновременно и служат заедно в Африка, където Ягюе е ранен на няколко пъти и получава няколко награди.

Yagüe е повишен в подполковник през 1932 г. Той, заедно с Франко и генерал Лопес Очоа, помага за потушаване на въстанието на работниците в Астурия, използвайки марокански регулатори и легионери през 1934 г. Той е силен ранен поддръжник на Falange Española и близък личен приятел на Хосе Антонио Примо де Ривера.


Índice

Formación y carrera militar Editar

Nacido en la localidad soriana de San Leonardo el 9 de noviembre de 1891. [8] Era hijo de Juan Yagüe Rodrigo, médico oriundo de Ucero (Soria), y de Maximiana Blanco Salas, natural de la localidad burgalesa de Salas de los Infantes . [9]

На преди 1907 г. в Академията на инфантерията в Толедо от епохата на миентралната ера, де ла мисма ер коронел Хуан Сан Педро и Чеа. [10] Coincidió en la misma promoción que los generales Francisco Franco y Emilio Esteban Infantes. En 1912 es ascendido a primer teniente después de cuatro años de destino en Burgos, y hasta marzo de 1914 no pasa a prestar sus servicios en el Regimiento de Infantería "Saboya" n.º 6, de guarnición en Tetuán. [11]

Algún tiempo después Yagüe marchó a África, donde combatió en la guerra del Rif dentro de las fuerzas de la Legión. Fue allí donde se ganó la fama de oficial "africanista", [12] al igual que otros mandos como Varela, Millán-Astray, Sanjurjo, Goded o Franco. [3]

Se afilió a Falange Española después de la proclamación de la Segunda República. De hecho, nunca mostró demasiadas simpatías por el nuevo régimen, al Regardrar que la República había frustrado su carrera militar. [13] En octubre de 1934 fue enviado a Asturias al mando de las tropas africanas con la misión de reprimir a los obreros y mineros asturianos que se habían rebelado. En principio, este puesto lo ocupaba el teniente coronel López Bravo, pero el jefe del Estado Mayor, Francisco Franco, lo sustituyó cuando expresó alguna duda acerca de que las tropas fueran a disparar contra la población civil. [14] Una vez desplegado en Asturias, Yagüe destacó por el empleo de una extraordinaria violencia en la represión de los obreros insurrectos. [15] Cuando el general Eduardo López Ochoa alcanzó un acuerdo con los obreros, Yagüe se indignó y mantuvo una encendida diskusion con López Ochoa, llegando a acusarlo de ser cómplice de los rebeldes. [16]

Yagüe, amigo de José Antonio Primo de Rivera, era militante de Falange y su actuación política siempre fluctuó entre dicha ideología y la fidelidad a Franco. En momentos delicados como el de la unificación de Falange con los carlistas от 1937 г., que generó algunos konfliktos, siempre optó por el segundo.

Conspiración militar Editar

Después de las elecciones de febrero de 1936, Yagüe pasó a integrat la conspiración militar para derribar al Gobierno del Frente Popular. Por aquel entonces era el comandante de una de las banderas de la Legión, ostentando el rango de teniente coronel y destinado en Ceuta.

A mediados de julio, en el transcurso de unas maniobras militares del Ejército de África en Llano Amarillo, durante el banquete posterior al desfile Yagüe celebró un encuentro con otros oficiales implicados en la trama golpista. [13] Durante la reunión se oyó en repetidas veces «¡CAFÉ!», Que en realidad quería decir «¡Camaradas, Arriba Falange Española!». [13] Yagüe estaba a cargo de la sublevación militar en Ceuta. [17] В 23:00 часа на 17 юли, después de que la sublevación hubiera comenzado en Melilla de forma inesperada, se hizo con el control de Ceuta de forma rápida y fácil, sin siquiera haber disparado un solo tiro. [18] Una vez que la rebelión había triunfado en todo Marruecos, el descabezamiento de los mandos de la Legión dejó a Juan Yagüe como comandante en jefe de la unidad. [19] Fue el comienzo de la guerra civil española.

Редактор на Campaña de Extremadura

A principios de agosto de 1936 ya había atravesado el estrecho de Gibraltar y se encontraba en la Península. En Sevilla los sublevados organizaron una Columna, al frente de la cual fue puesto Yagüe, formada principalmente con efectivos del Ejército del África. [20] Посреднически се пускат в марша, avanzando hacia el norte con el objetivo de llegar a Madrid. La violencia de los legionarios y las tropas marroquíes de Yagüe pronto crearon el terror en Extremadura, provocando la huida de miles de refugiados. [21] En Almendralejo, por ejemplo, murieron alrededor de mil civiles. El 10 de agosto Yagüe alcanzó Mérida, después de haber avanzado unos trescientos kilómetros en menos de siete días. Esto Constituyó una gran victoria, ya que supuso la unión de las fuerzas sublevadas en el sur con las fuerzas de Emilio Mola en el norte. [21] Pero la ciudad de Badajoz había quedado aislada en la retaguardia de los sublevados y seguía resistiendo.

Yagüe y tres mil soldados de su columnna se dirigieron a la capital pacense, donde resistanceían otros tres mil efectivos republicanos, muchos de ellos milicianos. La batalla de Badajoz fue de las más cruentas de la campaña. El 14 de agosto de 1936 се произвежда от el asalto de la Legión contra las murallas de la ciudad, que inicialmente fue rechazado por las ametralladoras republicanas, causando muchas bajas entre las fuerzas asaltantes un segundo asalto logró entrar en la ciudad. La batalla se alargó hasta que anocheció, y tras lo cual las fuerzas del Ejército de África desencadenaron una sangrienta represión. Algunas fuentes hablan de dos mil [22] y cuatro mil civiles ejecutados. [23] La magnitud de la matanza se trasluce, en mayores proporciones, en la respuesta que Yagüe le dio al periodista John T. Whitaker, del New York Herald Tribune, cuando éste le interrogó sobre lo sucedido: [24]

El portugués Mário Neves fue otro de los pocos periodistas que habló con el militar, quien reconoció los fusilamientos que estaban ocurriendo. Историкът Хю Томас сенала que Yagüe no hizo nada por evitar las ejecuciones. [25] La luego denominada matanza de Badajoz provocó un escándalo internacional y supuso que Yagüe acabara siendo conocido como el Карничеро де Бадахос.

La marcha hacia Madrid Editar

Ascendido a coronel, Yagüe continuó el avance hacia Madrid, a lo largo del río Tajo. [25] El 2 de septiembre sus fuerzas llegaron a las afueras de Talavera de la Reina y al día siguiente tomaron al asalto la ciudad, logrando una importante victoria. Nuevamente, sus fuerzas volvieron a stormerr otra masacre sobre la población civil. El avance hacia la capital continuó, pero se ralentizó mucho en comparación con las semanas anteriores por el significtivo aumento de la resistencia republicana. [26] Las bajas también se incrementaron. El 21 de septiembre el Ejército de África conquistó la población de Maqueda, donde la carretera se deliía en dos: una continuaba hacia Madrid y la otra se desviaba hacia Toledo, donde resistanceía un grupo de fuerzas sublevadas al mando del coronel Moscardó. En ese momento intervino Franco en el mando de las operaciones y decidió desviarse a Toledo, para gran indignación de algunos de los altos mandos sublevados. Yagüe y otros oficiales mantuvieron una postura totalmente opuesta y le advirtieron sobre el error que suponía este cambio. [27]

Yagüe fue sustituido por el general Varela, que sería quien continuease el avance hacia Madrid. [28]

Политически редактор на политиката

En marzo de 1937 Franco publicó el Decreto de Unificación, por el cual esperaba la unificación de la Falange con la Comunión Tradicionalista carlista en un único partido político, la Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y ). A esta Odlución se opuso furibundamente un sector de Falange liderado por Manuel Hedilla, sustituto temporal de Primo de Rivera. En medio del konflikto Yagüe llegó a mandar un telegrama a Hedilla en el que le decía: „Hoy más que nunca estoy a sus órdenes“. Aunque el telegrama fue interceptado por sus oficiales superiores, Franco ignoró este incidente y no tomó ninguna acción. [29] De hecho, en diciembre de 1937 Franco lo nombró consejero nacional y miembro del Consejo Nacional de FET y de las JONS, que se reunió en el burgalés Monasterio de las Huelgas. [30]

En abril de 1937, durante un discurso en Burgos, Yagüe intercedió a favor de Hedilla y sus seguidores detenidos, por lo que le fue impuesta una nueva sanción disciplinaria. En ese mismo discurso коментар:

Durante el mismo discurso también llegó a elogiar la capacidad de combate de los republicanos y, en cambio, calificó a los aliados alemanes e italianos de «criminales de presa». [32] Las palabras no gustaron ni a Franco ni a otros oficiales "nacionales" y, a consecuencia de las mismas, le sería retirado el mando de forma temporal. Según Hugh Thomas, por estas fechas el político socialista Indalecio Prieto intentó, sin éxito, entrar en contacto con Yagüe con el objetivo de alcanzar un kompromiso de paz entre ambos bandos. [31]

На октомври 1937 г., con motivo del primer aniversario de la designación de Franco como jefe del Estado, Yagüe произнася un uncurso в San Leonardo en el que volvió a mostrar su lado más beligerante hacia el enemigo: [33]

Nuevamente al mando Editar

En noviembre de 1937 fue puesto al mando del nuevo Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí.

En el mes de diciembre las fuerzas republicanas atacaron inesperadamente y conquistaron la ciudad de Teruel. Las fuerzas marroquíes de Yagüe fueron rápidamente enviadas a la zona para frenar la ofensiva republicana aunque no lograron evitar la caída de la ciudad, a comienzos от 1938 г. El Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí sí logró infigrita alligro alligr allogrino alligro en algrita alligr en algirita , lo cual debilitó las defensas republicanas. [35] La lucha continuó hasta que, en febrero de 1938, los franquistas volvían a hacerse con el control de la capital turolense.

Unas semanas después, el 7 de marzo de 1938 las fuerzas franquistas comenzaban una nueva ofensiva en el Frente de Aragón, rompiendo la línea de frente en varios puntos a lo largo de varios cientos de kilómetros. El Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí lanzó са ofensiva en la zona situada al sur del río Ebro, barriendo toda resistencia del Ejército republicano. [36] La retirada republicana pronto se convirtió en una desbandada. Los rápidos avances sublevados se vieron apoyados desde el aire por la Legión Cóndor. El 16 de marzo las divisiones de Yagüe habían cercado la población de Caspe y al día siguiente lograron conquistarla tras una dura batalla contra las Brigadas internacionales. En poco más de una semana el Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí había avanzado ciento diez kilómetros. [37] Tras un corto descanso para reorganizar sus fuerzas, Yagüe reanudó el avance y 25 de marzo entraron en Cataluña. Entonces el avance de los marroquíes de Yagüe se dirigió hacia la ciudad de Lérida. Pero esta vez se toparon con la encarnizada resistencia de la 46.ª División republicana de "El Campesino", alargándose los combates durante una semana antes de haber conquistado todo el casco urbano. [38] El 15 de abril la zona republicana quedó partida en dos con la conquista «nacional» de Vinaroz y la llegada al mar. Tras los combates de Aragón, el mal estado en que se encontraban las unidades republicanas habría allowido que los Ejércitos franquistas pudieran conquistar Cataluña sin demasiado esfuerzo. Pero Franco decidió deteterse a lo largo de los ríos Segre y Ebro, y continuar el avance hacia Valencia a través del Maestrazgo, en contra de los consejos de sus generales. Yagüe Cenzuró en privado esta Decisionión, lo que le valió una temporal suspensión del mando. [39]

El Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí се намира на място в ла ларго де ла марген сюр рио Ебро, guarneciendo su orilla. Durante varios meses la situación permanentció tranquila pero a las doce y cuarto de la noche del 25 de julio los republicanos comenzaron a cruzar el río en gran número, atacando un frente que iba desde Mequinenza a Amposta. El ataque pilló por sorpresa a buena parte de los defensores, lo que permitió a las fuerzas republicanas efectuar una gran penetración. Yagüe fue informado hacia las dos y media, cuando todos sus puestos defensivos se hallaban bajo el ataque enemigo. [40] Трас ел шок inicial las unidades del Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí comenzaron a fortificarse y a organizar la defensa en torno a dos puntos fortificados: Gandesa y la Villalba de los Arcos. Las dotes de Yagüe como organizador se hicieron patentes entonces. [41] Mientras, Franco comenzó и enviar refuerzos que afluían hacia el frente del Ebro. Las fuerzas de Yagüe logran contener la acometida republicana pero durante semanas no son capaces de expulsar a las unidades del Ejército del Ebro y apenas avanzan unos pocos kilómetros al precio de un gran número de bajas. [42] Entre agosto y octubre se lanzaron varias contraofensivas generales contra las posiciones republicanas, consiguiendo pocos avances. Sin embargo, a comienzos de noviembre la defensa republicana comenzó a derrumbarse y Yagüe lanzó a sus fuerzas al asalto. El 3 de noviembre los marroquíes alcanzan el río Ebro y precipitan la retirada de los republicanos. Para el 16 de noviembre los últimos efectivos del Ejército Популярни cruzan el río, poniendo fin a la batalla del Ebro. [43]

Después del comienzo de la ofensiva de Cataluña, el 3 de enero от 1939 el el Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí cruzó el río Ebro y comenzó a avanzar hacia Tarragona, que cayó el 14 de enero. Yagüe continuó avanzando por la costa y la mañana del 26 de enero entraba en Barcelona, ​​sin haber encontrado apenas resistencia en su avance. [44] A partr del mediodía comenzó la ocupación del centro urbano, encontrando un caluroso recibimiento por parte de los simpatizantes franquistas en Barcelona. [45]

Редактор на Ministro del Aire

Tras el final de la guerra es ascendido a general de división, y realizó en mayo de 1939 un viaje a la Alemania nazi acompañando a la Legión Cóndor en su regreso. [46] Durante el tiempo que estuvo en Alemania, Yagüe estudió las instituciones y organizaciones nacis, viéndose atraído por ellas. [7] Estando allí se vio profundamente atraído por la política social nazi, el Ejército y muy especialmente por la Луфтвафе. Esto le llevó a mantener contacto con el mariscal Hermann Wilhelm Göring, que a su vez era comandante de la Луфтвафе. [7] Yagüe se convirtió en un activo germanófilo. [47] El 9 de agosto Franco le nombró Ministro del Aire. [48]

Desde su puesto como ministro, Yagüe intentó crear un nuevo Ejército del Aire contando con la ayuda de la Alemania nazi e Italia, y con la clara intención de que participase en la futura guerra mundial en favor del Eje. [49] Yagüe ya había enviado varios oficiales a los centros de entrenamiento de Alemania e Italia, y su plan contemplaba la adquisición de 5000 aparatos para el Ejército del Aire, siguiendo el modelo de la Луфтвафе алемана. [50] La Fuerza Aérea española de entonces disponía de 14 regimientos y tres grupos aéreos, [51] compuestos a su vez por 172 cazas и 164 bombardeos de distinto tipo, junto a 82 aviones de cooperación y otros 75 aparatos capturados a los republicanos. [52] Los informes emitidos por el Estado Mayor, грешно ембарго, dejaban en evidencia el mal estado en que се encontraban los aviones, la falta de repuestos y de горими. [53] Окончателно el intento no tuvo éxito dada la pésima situación en que se encontraba el país y la imposibilidad de llevar a cabo semejante proyecto en tales condiciones. Como ministro, también auspició el nombramiento del Teniente coronel Luis Navarro Garnica como presidente del Atlético de Aviación.

El 27 de junio de 1940 es destituido de su cargo por Franco y confinado en su pueblo natal, San Leonardo, en Soria. El prexto oficial fue el haber dicho al embajador de Estados Unidos que el Reino Unido estaba derrotado y que lo tenía merecido. La realidad fue que Yagüe se había vuelto más explícito en sus criticas a Franco y oponiéndose a la polittica revanchista de Franco, estaba rehabilitando a oficiales de aviación republicanos, e incluso se había implicado en una trama para derroeca féraco der Franco de Franco servicio secretto. [54] Fue sustituido en su товарния министър на генерал Хуан Вийон. [55]

През 1941 г. Yagüe comenzó dirigiendo la Colonia Penitenciaria de San Leonardo, un complejo koncentracionario de prisioneros creado con el fin de rekonstruir su pueblo natal y mejorar sus infraestructuras. Грешно ембарго, дебидо и некомпетентна организация, la Dirección General de Seguridad terminó poniendo al frente un unicial de prisiones para soluntar los problemas existentes. Este funcionario, tras visitar la localidad, envió un informe a sus superiores en el que denunciaba que el general había hablado «en tono de censura» de Franco y de Serrano Suñer, y terminaba con esta valoración sobre Yagüe: «Da la impresión de estar perturbado ». [56]

Nuevos mandos Editar

Dos años más tarde el 12 de noviembre de 1942 es rehabilitado por Franco, que lo nombra comandante militar de Melilla y delegado del Gobierno en aquella plaza. [57] Este nombramiento se produjo unos días después de que los Aliados hubieran desembarcado en las colonias francesas del Norte de África. Yagüe es ascendido a teniente general en julio de 1943 y el 10 de octubre se hace cargo de la capitanía general de la VI Región Militar, con sede en Burgos, y de la jefatura del Cuerpo de Ejército de Navarra. [57] Como Capitán general de Burgos desarrolló una importante social social en la ciudad, [57] con la construcción de la Ciudad deportiva cívico-militar, la barriada de viviendas "Juan Yagüe" y también de la denominada "Residencia Sanitaria General Ягуе ". El hospital fue finalmente inaugurado en 1960 y permanentció activo hasta 2012, cuando fue sustituido por el nuevo Hospital Universitario de Burgos.

A pesar de su nuevo nombramiento, se mantuvo activo en varias conspiraciones contra Franco. [58] Durante esta etapa mantuvo unarespondencia Secreta con Juan de Borbón, en la que Yagüe manifestó su malestar con Franco y apostaba por una restauración monárquica, por el camino de sustituir a Franco por un Consejo Real presidido por Agustín Muñoz Grandes: [ 59]

Грешно ембарго, la suerte de la Alemania nazi cambió tras su catastrófica derrota en la Batalla de Stalingrado y Hitler empezó a perder la guerra. На октомври 1944 г., главен капитан на генерал де ла VI Регион Милитар, който папа съответства на ел рехазо де ла инвазион дел Вале де Аран по републиканос испаньоли, който е хабианска битка в ла Resistencia francesa durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

Juan Yagüe Blanco falleció en Burgos en 1952. Fue ascendido de forma póstuma a capitán general del Ejército, sustituyendo así al general Varela, que también ostentaba el rango a título póstumo. [60] Една 1953 г. е le concedió el marquesado de San Leonardo de Yagüe a título póstumo. [61]

Fue uno de los treinta y cinco altos cargos del franquismo imputado por la Audiencia Nacional en el sumario instruído por Baltasar Garzón, por los delitos de detención ilegal y crímenes contra la humanidad cometidos durante la Guerra civil española y en los primeros anos, en los primeros anos que no fueron processados ​​al comprobarse su fallecimiento. [62] [63] [64]

El 8 de mayo de 1926 contrajo matrimonio con María Eugenia Martínez del Campo, con la que tuvo seis hijos. [65] Su esposa era hija de Eduardo Martínez del Campo y Acosta, abogado y político, que llegó a ser ministro de Gracia y Justicia y Presidente del Tribunal Supremo.


Биография

Hezkuntza eta prestakuntza militarra

1907ko abuztuan Toledoko Infanteria Akademian sartu zen, garaian Jos é Villalba Riquelme koronelak zuzentzen zuelarik eta Francisco Franco y Emilio Esteban Infantes jeneralak izan zituen promozio kide bezala. 1912an lehen teniente postura igoarazi zen Burgosen lau urte egon ostean eta 1914ko maiatzean 6. & quotSavoia & quot Infanteriako Erregimentuan hasi zuen soldadutza. [9]

Afrikara joan, eta bertan Rifeko gerran gudukatu zuen Legioaren parte bezala. Bertan & quotafrikanista & quot [10] fama irabazi zuen, gainontzeko buruek (Varela, Mill án-Astray, Sanjurjo, Goded edo Franco) [2] bezala.

Bigarren Errepublikaren aldarrikapenaren ondoren Falange Espainiarrera afiliatu zen ez zegoelarik erregimen berriarekin ados, bere karrera militarra zapuztu zuelakoan. [11] 1934ko urrian Asturiasera bidali zuten Armada Afrikarraren buru bezala, bertan matxinaturiko langile eta meatzariak erreprimitzeko helburuarekin. Hasiera batean L ópez Bravo koronela zegoen buruzagi bezala, baina Francok ordezkatu zuen tropek zibilen aurka tiro egiteari buruz zituen dudak adieraztean. [12] ​ Behin Asturiasen, Yag ࿎k indarkeri eta bortxakeri kemenduna erakutsi zuen langile altsatuen aurka [13], hainbesteraino, non Eduardo L ópez Ochoa jenerala langileekin hitzarmen batera holdu matteko bataetu bantae batean ebanez etan aldeko izateaz salatu zuen. [14]

Juan Jos é Antonio Primo de Riveraren laguna izanik eta Falangearen militantea, bere ideologia beti egon zen aipaturikoen printzipio eta Francorekiko leialtasunaren artean. Falangearen eta karlisten bateratzea (1937) bezalako momentu gakoetan beti jo zuen Francoren alde.

Konspirazio militarra

1936ko otsaileko hauteskundeen ondoren, Yag ࿎ Fronte Popularraren gobernua erorarazteko azpilanen parte bilakatu zen. Garai hartan Legioaren banderetako baten komandante zen, Teniente koronel mailarekin eta Ceutan finkatua.


КАРОЛИН АНГУС

Битката при Бадахос е една от първите водещи битки и победи за десните националистически бунтовници в Гражданската война в Испания. Спечеленото на 14 август 1936 г. клането в Бадахос отдавна се използва като пропаганда срещу жестоките сили на Франко.

Войната беше на почти един месец. Районите, контролирани от националистическите армии, бяха разделени между север и юг и трябваше да свържат своите територии. Бадахос, град с около 41 000 души, на границата с Португалия, се превърна в основна мишена. Националистическите сили тръгнаха на север от Севиля по пътя си към центъра на Мадрид. До 10 август полковник Хуан Яг (известен убиец, особено на невинни) и неговите 2250 войници превзеха град Мерида, само на 60 км източно от Бадахос. Yague получи заповед да превземе Бадахос, за да свърже северната и южната им граница и да държи района до португалската граница под свой контрол.

Бадахос вече беше наводнен от бежанци от всички посоки от убийства, случващи се както в градовете, така и в страната. Някои богати дясни земевладелци дори държаха дни, когато те и техните приятели щяха да убиват селяни, докато са на кон. Убийства и репресии Убийствата бяха неконтролирани и масови. В продължение на три дни Бадахос претърпя въздушна бомбардировка от самолети, дарени на националистическите войски от Италия и Германия. Настроението на града беше предстоящата гибел.

Бадахос от въздуха 1936

След зората на 14 август националистите щурмуват северната порта на града Пуерта де Лос Карос и южната порта Пуерта де ла Тринидад. Докато републиканците успяха да задържат войниците на южната порта, бруталните мавритански войски победиха при северната порта, разбивайки града и преодолявайки казармите вътре. Последва грозна битка, като националистите убиваха с щикове и ножове, когато изпревариха целия град. Много републикански милиции се отклониха да се присъединят към националистическите войски и много от тях се предадоха. Всички, които се виждаха, бяха убити през целия ден, дори когато се предадоха. Всички лидери на града и републиканската милиция, включително кметът, напуснаха града рано през деня и стигнаха до Португалия, изоставяйки хората до смъртта им.

Националистическите войски изпитваха голяма наслада, като избиха възможно най -много хора, включително невъоръжени жени и деца. Техните лидери също популяризираха използването на изнасилване срещу жени като оръжие от избухването на войната. Всеки, който не е бил убит веднага при виждане, е бил прибран. Докато мнозина бяха марширувани до местните бикове за бикове и екзекутирани от разстрелите, много бяха просто убити на улицата. Очаква се между 1000 и 1800 души да бъдат екзекутирани в първия ден на битката. На една главна улица, Calle San Juan, около 300 тела бяха оставени там след екзекуцията. През нощта и на следващия ден всеки, който дори подозираше, че е симпатизант на левицата, беше изведен от домовете си и изпратен на арената за екзекуция. Журналистите пуснаха цензурирани истории за клането, включително португалски журналист, който избяга вкъщи с разказа, отказвайки никога повече да стъпи в Бадахос, след като стана свидетел на изтезания и екзекуция.

Истинският брой на загиналите при клането в Бадахос остава неизвестен, но се изчислява някъде между 1300 и 4000 души. Няма официални данни за смъртта. Повечето бяха убити от стрелба или картечница в арената за бикове, до степен, в която затворниците стояха до кръв до глезените с други тела, докато бяха убити. Имаше съобщения за осакатяване, въпреки че точното поведение не е известно. Предполага се, че някои от тях са били убити по корида, преследвани и намушкани в гърба и след това осакатени. Мавританските войски бяха добре известни със своята порочна и садистична природа. В тази битка загиват до 10% от града.

Ранна снимка на вътрешността на бикоборството

Битката при Бадахос даде един от най -известните цитати от войната, когато полковник Яге, който дотогава си беше спечелил псевдонима "Месар от Бадахос", каза пред американски журналист (с много гордост) – “ Разбира се, че ги застреляхме. Какво очакваш? Трябваше ли да взема 4000 червени със себе си, докато колоната ми напредваше, състезавайки се с времето? Очакваше ли се да ги пусна в гърба си и да ги оставя да направят Бадахос отново червен? ” Докато битката е етикетирана като битка по време на война, много се говори за прекласифицирането й като геноцид или престъпление срещу човечеството, което със сигурност е било.

Около района Бадахос, още 2000 души бяха убити от маршируващите войници, предимно фермери. Докато републиканците бяха етикетирани като "#8216 червени"#8217, националистите вече бяха известни като "##2121 бял терор"#8217. За съжаление това беше само началото на дълга гражданска война.

Стрелба към стената извън арената за бикове

Ръководителите на комисията по отбрана и кметът бяха намерени в Португалия и се върнаха у дома, за да бъдат изправени пред екзекуция малко по -късно. Тази битка би била далеч от единствената голяма битка в Бадахос по време на войната. Но това първоначално клане свързва северните и южните елементи на националистите, засилвайки напредъка им в страната.

Това не е подробен анализ, а опростен доклад за събитията в Бадахос. Чувствайте се свободни да предложите допълнение/пояснение/корекция по -долу. Всички снимки са свързани с източник за кредит. Срещу обичайното предпочитание избрах да добавя снимки на разстрела, тъй като това е болезнено точно отражение на събитието.


Син на лекар, той се записва на млади години в Пехотната академия в Толедо, където Франсиско Франко е съученик -кадет. Двамата мъже получиха поръчките си едновременно и служеха заедно в Африка, където Ягюе беше ранен на няколко пъти и получи няколко награди.

Yagüe е повишен в подполковник през 1932 г. Той, заедно с Франко и генерал Лопес Очоа, помага за потушаването на въстанието на работниците в Астурия, използвайки марокански регулатори и легионери през 1934 г. Той е силен ранен поддръжник на фаланжката Испания и близък личен приятел на Хосе Антонио Примо де Ривера.


Гражданска война в Испания [редактиране]

Когато Никето Алкала-Замора беше заменен като президент на републиката от левия Мануел Азаня на 10 май 1936 г., група офицери от испанската армия, включително Ягюе, Емилио Мола, Франко, Гонсало Куейпо де Лано и Хосе Санжурджо, започнаха да кроят заговор за свалят демократично избраното правителство на Народния фронт. Това води до военно въстание, което ускорява испанската гражданска война на 17 юли 1936 г.

Yagüe's forces revolted in Ceuta before crossing the Straits of Gibraltar to link up with Nationalist forces in Seville, led by Queipo de Llano. Yagüe advanced northward, first seizing Mérida before attacking Badajoz with 3,000 troops on 14 August 1936. Bitter street fighting took place when the Nationalists advanced into the city. Yagüe's forces eventually gained control of Badajoz, with both sides suffering heavy casualties.

Under Yagüe's direction hundreds of prisoners, military and civilians, were killed or executed in Badajoz, during the Badajoz massacre. Ώ] ΐ] Α] Β] Before leaving the city, Yagüe was asked by the American journalist John T. Whitaker about his reason for killing all those people (10% of the city's population) and he answered: Γ]

"Of course we shot them", he said to me. "What do you expect? Was I supposed to take 4,000 reds with me as my column advanced, racing against time? Was I expected to turn them loose in my rear and let them make Badajoz red again?"

Yagüe was then promoted to colonel and afterwards advanced on Madrid, capturing Trujillo, Navalmoral de la Mata and Talavera de la Reina, but was unable to take the capital. He took part in the Aragon Offensive and seized control of Belchite, Caspe and Lérida. He also played a leading role in the Nationalist victory at the Battle of the Ebro. In May 1938, Yagüe was removed from his command and imprisoned for injudicious remarks he made in a speech at Burgos, critical of Franco. He was back at the front within weeks.

It has been said that he was the only commander of Spanish forces that the Condor Legion respected. ⎖] [ page needed ] Yagüe never showed panic even when the enemy was close by, and was able to adjust battle plans quickly in order to suit changing circumstances (they hated Mola for his cautious approach). [ необходим цитат ]


Испанска гражданска война

When Niceto Alcalá-Zamora was replaced as President of the Republic by the left-wing Manuel Azaña on May 10, 1936, a group of Spanish Army officers, including Yagüe, Emilio Mola, Franco, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano and José Sanjurjo, started plotting to overthrow the democratically elected Popular Front government. This led to a military uprising which precipitated the Spanish Civil War on July 17, 1936.

Yagüe's forces revolted in Ceuta before crossing the Straits of Gibraltar to link up with Nationalist forces in Seville, led by Queipo de Llano. Yagüe advanced northward, first seizing Mérida before attacking Badajoz with 3,000 troops on August 14, 1936. Bitter street fighting took place when the Nationalists advanced into the city. Yagüe's forces eventually gained control of Badajoz, with both sides suffering heavy casualties.

Under Yagüe's direction thousands of prisoners and civilians, including women and children, were executed in Badajoz and buried in common graves, during the Badajoz massacre, in one of the biggest massacres by the Nationalists of the war. [1] [2] [3] [4] Before leaving the city, Yagüe was asked by the American journalist John T. Whitaker about his reason for killing all those people (10% of the city's population) and he answered: [5]

"Of course that we have killed them. What did you suppose? Will I take 4,000 red prisoners with my column, having to advance against the clock? Or will I leave them in my rearguard so that Badajoz will be red another time?"

Yagüe was then promoted to colonel and afterwards advanced on Madrid, capturing Trujillo, Navalmoral de la Mata and Talavera de la Reina, but was unable to take the capital. He took part in the Aragon Offensive and seized control of Belchite, Caspe and Lérida. He also played a leading role in the Nationalist victory at the Battle of the Ebro. In May 1938, Yagüe was removed from his command and imprisoned for injudicious remarks he made in a speech at Burgos, critical of Franco. He was back at the front within weeks.

It has been said that he was the only commander of Spanish forces that the Condor Legion respected. [6] [ page needed ] Yagüe never showed panic even when the enemy was close by, and was able to adjust battle plans quickly in order to suit changing circumstances (they hated Mola for his cautious approach).


Stars, Sickles, and . Tricolors? - A History of the world since 1936

I'm still relatively new to the forum, and I've finally gotten around to posting my first thread.

Before I begin, I have to give credit to the people who have inspired me to join ah.com. I've been a longtime lurker, but joined relatively recently. People like Beedok, B. Munro, Hrvatskiwi, and others have pretty much ignited my interest for alternate history. I just wanted to thank all of you guys for your awesome work.

So, like I said, this is my very first timeline, so please excuse any major errors in my posts I'm sure that there are more than a few. I intend for this to be my flagship timeline, so it will be receiving most of my time outside of college. No clue about an update schedule, but I'll try to post whenever I can. The format is supposed to be in the manner of a history textbook, although it's not exactly perfect in that regard. Anyways, without further ado, I present to you Stars, Sickles, and Tricolors.


The Flames Advance: The Spanish Civil War
August 1st, 1936- Francisco Franco winced as the Ju-52 transport entered another bout of turbulence. His was one of several transports en route to the Nationalist-held city of Seville from Morocco, transporting some of his army to the mainland for the revolution. "No," he corrected himself mentally," the Republicans would stage a revolution he was staging the liberation of his homeland from the Red menace!"
Suddenly, one of the pilots began shouting in alarm. "Enemy aircraft approaching from the northeast!" Franco glanced out the window, spotting a silvery metallic glint from several approaching planes. They could only be enemy fighters. As one plane flashed by, another passenger, a defector from the Air Force, named the threat. "Nieuports!"
As his transport began to dive to gain airspeed, Franco caught a glimpse of another Ju-52 falling in flames. Then his plane staggered, and the pilots began cursing, mirroring Franco's own string of obscenities. Franco glanced out of his window again. The right engine was in flames, and part of the wing was gone. His world tilted crazily as the plane suddenly spiraled to the left, and he was thrown against the window with a violent blow. Momentarily stunned, General Francisco Franco opened his eyes to glimpse the Spanish countryside rushing up towards him, before he and the rest of his flight of transports entered into oblivion.

The Spanish Civil War was one of several warnings the world received about the coming cataclysm, one that was looked at but ignored by the major powers. Britain and France, who both provided some aid to the Spanish Republic, sat on the sidelines for the entirety of the conflict. Meanwhile, Italy and Germany both provided the Nationalists with aid and volunteers. It was a foreshadowing of things to come.
The opening stages of the conflict, ignited by a military coup in Spanish Morocco, went quite well for the Nationalists. The Canaries, the Balearics, and Seville were all quickly secured, while the primarily conservative areas of Old Castille and Leon rose up in support of the rebels. However, the first major blow to the Nationalist cause came in early August with the death of General Francisco Franco.
He was the most widely respected leader of the rebels, and his death while en route to take command in Seville was a serious blow to the leadership of the Nationalists. With his death, the choice of his successor became a contentious issue among the various groups of the Nationalist cause. The Falangists preferred General Juan Yague, while the Alfonsists supported Marshal Jose Sanjurjo. This split led to severe mistrust among the Nationalists, and cost them the critical initiative in the early days of the war.
In the end, a compromise was worked out: Sanjurjo would oversee the critical southern theater, while Yague would command the northern theater. This compromise was worked out due to the ongoing battle near Seville. Immediately after its conclusion, Sanjurjo took command and repulsed the Republican offensive. Up north, Nationalist forces managed to link up near Gijon before laying siege to the Republican bastion of Bilbao. Bilbao managed to hold out for two months, before the Republicans staged a breakout and retreated north to the town of Guernica. Meanwhile, the fighting going on in close proximity to their southern border deeply concerned the French. When a few stray artillery shells landed in the border village of Hendaye, the French government acted it shifted its policy from verbal to physical support of the Republicans. The first shipments of Dewoitine D.500 and D.501 fighters began arriving in January of 1937. The British were not idle either they began shipping arms and supplies to the Republic in March of 1937. The ranks of volunteers who began trickling in, not only from France and Britain but also the Soviet Union and United States gave the Republic fresh soldiers and new expertise to combat the uprisings.
The Nationalists were also recipients of foreign aid, although to a slightly lesser extent than the Republicans. Both German and Italian volunteers arrived soon after the outbreak of hostilities, the most famous of which were two aerial squadrons, the Condor Legion and the Aviazione Legionaria, from Germany and Italy respectively. Although these volunteers fought valiantly, by the end of 1937 it was clear that their cause was doomed.
While their initial thrust at Seville had been repulsed, the Republicans had managed to regroup and establish a line of defense stretching in an arc from Malaga to Cordoba and Barracota. In the north, naval support as well as a steady stream of foreign supplies kept the Republicans in control of the coast from Portagulete to San Sebastian. In April of 1937, the Republicans launched their first major offensive, aimed at retaking Bilbao. With new Soviet-made 'Rata' fighters, tearing through the surprised Nationalists, the Republicans smashed resistance outside of Guernica after a week of heavy fighting. Bilbao was then retaken with relatively light losses. In southern Castille, the Nationalists were agian routed near Segovia, pushed back further from Madrid. In the heat of June, the fighting picked up in intensity. The Republican army was nearly obliterated near Vitoria. However, the public execution of nearly 100 Basque civilians by the Nationalists turned the Basque against them, and the Nationalists were unable to seize the moment.
In the south, the war turned into a near-stalemate reminiscent of World War One, with neither side making much progress until late in the year. On October 31st, the Republicans pulled off a near-miraculous breakthrough along the Genil River, advancing halfway to Seville. Seville itself fell to the Republicans in late November. Disheartened, the Nationalists pulled back towards Cadiz, where they were holed up for the rest of the war.
After the success of the Winter Offensive, the Republicans prepared a final attack to end the Civil War. Beginning on March 5th, the Republicans used Soviet tanks to advance nearly 60 miles, moving their artillery within range of the provisional Nationalist capital of Burgos. After weeks of shelling, Burgos surrendered on May 17th. The surrender convinced many Nationalists to lay down their arms. By the end of the month, the fighting was officially over.
Internationally, the end of the Spanish Civil War received little attention, as the world was focused on the ongoing crisis over Sudetenland, and the Japanese advances in China. However, one nation which moved to take advantage was the Soviet Union. A significant leftist movement had been present in Spain before the civil war, and the polarization of the nation led to further leftist sympathies in the Republican government. Some of the more radical leftists, such as communists and socialists, called for the establishment of a Spanish Soviet Republic based upon the Russian example, a call eagerly supported by the Soviet Union.
However, instead of moving his nation into a full-blown communist regime, President Manuel Azana instead sought a compromise to solve the issues which had caused the Civil War. He managed to push through several economic reforms which were acceptable to both conservatives and liberals. Seen as a stab in the back to the Popular Front which had elected him, Azana's former backers split along ideological lines. The Communists, Socialists, Republicans, and several splinter groups all went their separate ways. In saving the Republic, President Azana had inadvertently guaranteed civil turmoil for years to come.

BlueEagle21

Hello again
Sorry for the double post, but I have just finished another update, and I wanted to send it out before it got lost in the clutter on my computer.

The Sleeping Giant: America Prior to World War Two

Before its entry into the Second World War, the United States still suffered from the lingering effects of the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl. However, unemployment continued to fall, dipping below 17% in the spring of 1936. The New Deal's various programs continued to slowly but surely drag America out of the Depression. In May of 1936, the Rural Electrification Act was passed, and electric power began making inroads to rural America.

The Popularity of the New Deal and its positive effects on the American economy led to the reelection of Franklin Delano Roosevelt to the presidency in November. America's international prestige rose as well, when famed aviator Amelia Earhart completed her circumnavigation of the globe in 1937.

The latter half of the 1930's was also characterized by an increase in tensions between labor unions and businesses. In particular, the Memorial Day Massacre of 1937 highlighted the polarization between the two groups. However, President Roosevelt refused to intervene, preferring for the two groups to amicable settle their differences. In 1938, the American worker won his victory with the passage of the Fair Labor Standards Act, which set a minimum wage as well as a maximum number of work hours per week.

During this same time period, the American military received increasing investment from a government concerned with the expansion of Germany, Italy, and Japan. The Army began modernizing its outdated equipment. The Navy received two new fleet carriers, while construction on several new battleships and cruisers began. Also, new research into tanks began this work would lead directly to the famous M3 Lee tank of the early war years. After the start of the war in Europe, the Neutrality Acts were amended to allow military aid to be sent to several Allied nations, using a 'cash and carry' policy. After the fall of France and L'Exode, the Naval Expansion Act was signed into law it authorized a further three fleet carriers, several new battleships of the North Carolina, Iowa, and Montana classes, and numerous cruisers and smaller vessels.

In 1940, President Roosevelt won an unprecedented third term in office. He continued his previous policies of past years, while also introducing a new concept that would keep the struggling Allies afloat: Lend-Lease. The Lend-Lease Act was passed in March 1941, authorizing direct military aid to be sent to Britain and the French. later, the act would be amended to allow China and the Soviet Union to receive aid as well.

Ever since the outbreak of hostilities in Europe in the fall of 1939, the United States had tried to steer a neutral course and keep out the casualties and horrors of the First World War were still fresh in the minds of many. However, just a few months into the war, this attitude began to change. The Iron Annie Incident, which occurred in December of 1939, led to increasing American hostility towards the Nazi regime and the Axis cause in general. The casualties inflicted upon civilians by the German battle-cruiser Graf Spee angered many, but it was still not enough to convince many Americans that intervention was necessary. This attitude of hostile neutrality ruled for two years, but it all changed on December 7th, 1941.

The attack on Pearl Harbor sparked a massive sense of rage in the American psyche, one rarely seen in the nation's history. After the attack on Pearl Harbor, many Americans desired vengeance not only against Japan, but Germany as well, in return for the loss of the Iron Annie and the Nourmahal. This tremendous sense of outrage led to the unanimous declaration of war on Japan the next day, after an impassioned speech before Congress by President Roosevelt. This speech, immortalized as the 'Day of Infamy' speech, has gone down in history as one of the greatest American oratories of the century. Congress was spared having to vote for war with Germany, however Adolf Hitler personally announced his nation's declaration of war against the Unite States on December 11th. Now the United States was in the fight, a war like none seen before in human history.

Zeppelinair

BlueEagle21

Avernite

BlueEagle21

Next update is ready. The first three parts are more or less OTL, the final portion is the major divergence.


The Invasion of Poland (September 1939)
In the early hours of September 1st, 1939, Germany launched its invasion of Poland, and in doing so inaugurated the Second World War. The Germans enjoyed not only technological superiority, but also numerical and tactical superiority, which they employed to great success.
After wiping out the small Polish Air Force, the Germans concentrated all of their efforts on advancing eastwards. Army Group North, under General von Bock, cut off the Polish Corridor within three days of the beginning of hostilities. In particular, General Heinz Guderian's panzers distinguished themselves by advancing the front hours, sometimes even days ahead of schedule. By the end of the first week, Krakow had fallen to the 14th Army, while 3rd Army pressed on to Warsaw. By the 15th of September, Warsaw had been surrounded by elements of 3rd Army and 8th Army. Two days later, any hopes of a Polish recovery were dealt a mortal blow when the Soviet Army crossed the eastern border. Warsaw surrendered to the Germans on September 28th, and the last armed resistance ended on October 2nd. This was a dark omen for the future of Europe, as many more nations would be subsumed by the Nazi advance before the war's end.

The Winter War (November 1939-March 1940)
Before the beginning of the war, the Soviets had already shown some interest in Finland negotiations for a lease on the port of Hanko had fallen through, mostly due to Finnish fears of further Soviet demands. In November, after the official division of Poland with Germany, Soviet troops crossed the border into Finland to take the claims by force.
The Finns were outnumbered and outgunned, but what they lacked in numbers and armaments they more than made up for in determination and ferocity. They were also gifted by a talented commander, Marshal Carl von Mannerheim. Mannerheim had already directed the construction of a defensive line in Karelia, a line which held for most of the war. U north, the initial Soviet offensive managed to cut off and capture Petsamo, while advancing towards the village of Khumo in central Finland. However, after the first week the war devolved into a near stalemate, with the Soviets occasionally managing to advance a few miles in exchange for heavy casualties.
In February, a new offensive was begun under a restructured Soviet leadership. The Finn's defensive line in Karelia wasn't breached for over a week, but the Soviets penetrated deep into central Finland, capturing Suomussalmi, Nurmes, and Iisalmi. This breakdown of defense, along with the eventual penetration of the 'Mannerheim Line', led Marshal Mannerheim to recommend his government engage in peace negotiations. On March 12, 1940, the Treaty of Moscow was signed. The Finns ceded Hanko, the Karelian Isthmus, and Petsamo to the Soviets.

Скандинавия (April-May 1940)
In order to fuel her rapid expansion, Germany needed raw materials, of which the iron ore form neutral Sweden was absolutely vital. In order to secure their supply of Swedish iron, Germany needed to secure the Norwegian port of Narvik as well as the Danish-controlled Skagerrak Straits. In order to secure the latter, Germany invaded the nation of Denmark on April 9th, with only small resistance in the southern part of the small kingdom. The Danish Navy stood aside, allowing the Germans to capture Copenhagen. Before noon, the Danish government had ordered a ceasefire and surrendered to Germany.
At the same time, another German force had set sail for Norway, landing at Oslo, Stavanger, Narvik, and Kristiansand. The Norwegian defenders fought valiantly, but were overwhelmed and pushed into the countryside. The only significant casualty the Germans suffered was the cruiser Blucher, sunk by artillery fire near Oslo.
After being expelled from the coast, the government retreated to the interior of the country, and initiated a plan of fighting retreats to allow Allied assistance to arrive. And arrive it did the British Expeditionary Force landed at Narvik, securing the port and establishing a defensive perimeter. However, the German advance into the Low Countries and France forced the British to withdraw in order to reinforce their French allies. With the withdrawal of the British, the Norwegian government, led by King Haakon VII, fled to London. The few defenders left in Narvik were unable to do little more than hold off the Germans long enough for the evacuation to be completed. This near defeat in Norway also led to political change in Britain Prime Minister Chamberlain was ousted by a vote of no confidence, being replaced by Winston Churchill and a coalition government.
Perhaps the most famous Allied casualty of the Norwegian campaign was the destroyer Glowworm. She engaged the German cruiser Admiral Hipper, heavily damaging her before sinking. Hipper herself was sunk just a few days later, with few survivors, by aircraft from the Royal Navy carrier HMS Glorious.

Blitzkrieg in the West (May-June 1940)
After many months of preparation during the Phoney War, or 'Sitzkrieg', during the winter and spring of 1939-1940, Germany launched her strike at the West. Rightly predicting that the Allies expected an offensive through Belgium and northern France, General Erich von Manstein prepared an offensive through the Ardennes Forest, supported by a diversionary strike through the Netherlands and central Belgium to divert the Allied forces. The main offensive was to be spearheaded by General Guderian's panzers. General von Bock was given command of the attacks on the Netherlands and Belgium, while General von Rundstedt would lead the main offensive. Meanwhile, General von Leeb's forces would distract the defenders of the Maginot Line.
On May 10th, gliders filled with engineers and paratroopers began landing in southern Holland and eastern Belgium. They quickly secured vital bridges over the area's canals and rivers by the end of the day, panzers had arrived from the border,reinforcing the bridgeheads. The trap was now set for the Allies.
The Allies followed the German expectations to a T, moving northwards towards the Belgian-Dutch border. Quick to exploit the opportunity, von Rundstedt's army poured through the Ardennes, with little resistance. By dawn on May 13th, the German Army had penetrated as far as Sedan, when General Guderian's forces began crossing the Meuse. Opposing him was the French Second Army, under General Huntziger. Despite putting up a tenacious defense, the confusion generated by the German attacks and a continuous aerial bombardment forced the French into a fighting retreat. Here, the Germans turned west, towards the English Channel, intending to cut off the main Allied army from the rest of France. During their push to the Channel, the only significant counteroffensive was a minor attack near the town of Compiegne, led by young Colonel Charles de Gaulle. However, this attack had no significant effect on the German advance, and on May 19th they reached the Channel.
Trapped in a shrinking pocket, the Allies attempted a counterattack on May 24th, achieving moderate success before losing all their gains and more the next day. However, the rapid German advance turned out to be a blessing in disguise: the panzers were forced to halt and wait for fuel convoys to catch up, delaying their advance by over 24 hours. This allowed the Allies to launch Operation Dynamo, the largest evacuation of troops ever undertaken. All available vessels in southern England, military and civilian, were sent south to the beaches near Dunkirk, and crammed with soldiers and other refugees to offload in southern Britain. Over the next eight days, nearly 340,000 troops were transported to Britain, a testament to the determination and selflessness of hundreds of brave volunteer boats and their crews. However, a fair amount of the Allies' equipment had to be left behind in and around Dunkirk.
Soon after Operation Dynamo, Belgium surrendered to Germany. This, and the capitulation of the Dutch a few days later, allowed the Germans to focus all of their attention onto France. The French attempted to form a defensive line along the Somme and Aisne Rivers, but this was broken on June 10th. On June 14th, the Germans entered Paris, which had been declared an open city and was thus spared aerial and artillery attack.
On the same day that the Germans had broken through on the Somme, the French government under Paul Reynaud had left Paris for Tours from there, they moved to Marseilles. Following them was a vast column of refugees and soldiers. The German capture of Paris split the French government into two camps: those who favored continuing the war, led by Charles de Gaulle and Henri Giraud, and those who sought an armistice with the Germans, led by Great War hero Philippe Petain. In the end, the peace faction was overruled, and the French government left for Algiers on June 22nd. However, on the 30th Marshal Petain and a small group of delegates requested a ceasefire with the Germans, effectively ending the war on French soil.
The relocation of the French government to Algiers, termed L'Exode, marked a major shift in the war now Britain was the only power left capable of standing up to the Germans. However, the majority of the French armed forces stayed loyal to the government in Algiers, and continued to fight for the Allied cause. The French Navy, under Admiral Darlan, remained entirely under Allied control even the incomplete battleship Richelieu was towed to Oran and completed there over the next two years.
Although few organized and intact elements of the French army managed to escape in L'Exode, enough small units and individuals made it to North Africa to form the core of the new Army of North Africa. A further fourteen divisions were raised and added to the Army, made up of garrison troops, units from sub-Saharan Africa, and locals. The Army of North Africa was also lacking in armor, a side effect of the few transports available for tanks and armored cars however, enough made it that four battalions were organized, with a few extras spread out as infantry support.
Now, the war entered its most precarious phase. The conflict stood on a knife-edge, easily falling to the Axis or Allies. Both sides faced a tough fight, but now it seemed that Britain itself was in mortal danger.


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Цитат на APA

Garriga, Ramon. (1985). El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia. Barcelona, Espana : Planeta

MLA цитиране

Garriga, Ramon. El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / Ramon Garriga Planeta Barcelona, Espana 1985

Австралийско/Харвардско цитиране

Garriga, Ramon. 1985, El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / Ramon Garriga Planeta Barcelona, Espana

Позоваване на Уикипедия
El general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / Ramon Garriga
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050 0 0 | аDP236.Y3 | бG36 1985
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100 1 | аGarriga, Ramon.
245 1 3 | аEl general Juan Yague, figura clave para conocer nuestra historia / | вRamon Garriga.
250 | а1a ed.
260 | аBarcelona, Espana : | бPlaneta, | в1985.
300 | а282 pages, [24] pages of plates : | бillustrations, portraits | в22 cm.
490 0 | аDocumento |v168
500 | аIncludes index.
600 1 0 | аYague, Juan, | d1891-1952.
610 1 0 | аИспания. | бEjercito | xБиография.
650 0 | аGenerals | zИспания | xБиография.
651 0 | аИспания | xИстория |yCivil War, 1936-1939.
651 0 | аИспания | xИстория |y1939-1975.
984 | аANL | в946.0810924 Y12G

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